We have databases that play the same role as Philsopher's Index for almost every field of study. A few examples given below, but you can find more through our database listings (use the subject pull-down menu).
JSTOR and Project Muse are both journal repositories.
This is the search box on the library home page. It searches across many of our databases, plus our book and ebook collections, so produces very interdisciplinary results.
Google algorithm and search interface are very different from what library databases use. Sometimes this is a good thing!