APA: Citing Uncommon Sources

Tips

Author

On sites where items are posted under user names but not necessarily proper names, enter the user name where you would normally put the author's name. Author in this case will be the main creator(s) for the item you are citing.

Creator information may often be found under a section called "About" for some types of social media, however this is not always standard.

Date

Most items will provide a date they were posted. The standard format for the date is Year, Month Day.

If only part of the date is provided, post what you have such as the year and skip the rest of the date.

If no date is provided, use the initials n.d. where you would normally put the date

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

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Reddit posts & comments

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a Reddit post in APA style 7th edition:

Author of the Reddit post. [Reddit screen name] (Date of posting). Title of the Reddit post [Online forum post]. Retrieved from URL

Examples

A Reddit post from an unknown user

[HiinXCVIII]. (2018, September 24). Fantastic view from google earth [Online forum post]. Retrieved from https://www.reddit.com/r/funny/comments/9ihsdp/fantastic_view_from_google_earth/

An unknown user's question on Reddit

[SoulK007]. (2018, December 9). How are you supposed to cite a reddit post in APA or MLA? [Online forum post]. Retrieved from https://www.reddit.com/r/AskReddit/comments/a4hwq8/how_are_you_supposed_to_cite_a_reddit_post_in_apa/

Streaming Video from a Website (Youtube, Vimeo, etc.)

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Streaming Service. URL

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted the video is credited as the author.

Example

Nye, B. [TheRealBillNye]. (2009, April 8). Bill Nye the science guy on energy [Video]. You Tube. http://youtu.be/0ASLLiuejAo

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nye, 2009)

In-Text Quote

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nye, 2009)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Tweets

Author last name, First initial. Second initial if given [@Twitter user name]. (Year tweet was posted, Month Day). Text of post up to the first twenty words [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Example

Giridharadas, A. [@AnandWrites]. (2020, January 17). The fallacy of our age is that we can lift up those down below without interfering with those standing [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/AnandWrites/status/1218203291982749697

Note: Write out the actual text of the post in the citation and keep spelling, capitalization, and grammar the same as in the original, even if there are errors. Include any emojis that are present. If there is multimedia content note it in square brackets after the post (eg. [Video]).

In-Text Paraphrase

(Last name, Year)

Example: (Giridharadas, 2020)

Note: if there is no author last name, use the name of the account as you would with a group author.

In-Text Quote

(Twitter user name, Year)

Example: (Giridharadas, 2020)

Note: Because tweets do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Instagram Posts

APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (2018, December 5). Welcome to the official Instagram for #APAStyle! We’re here to help you with your APA Style questions [Instagram photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/Bq-A-dvBLiH/

 

Fox, M. J. [@realmikejfox]. (2018, June 5). It takes < than a min to learn how to save a life. Watch the video at handsonly.nyc #ICanSaveALife with #HandsOnlyCPR [Instagram photo]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/BjppDLDBxRF/

 

Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2018, May 12). Happy Mother’s Day!! “It is important for the son to have a close relationship with his mother while he is [Instagram video]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/BirIQFnnmzd/

 

in-text citations: (APA Style, 2018; Fox, 2018; Public Interest Directorate, 2018)

Snapchat or Instagram Stories

Although each story within the highlight is dated, the highlight itself is not dated, so use "n.d." in the reference. Because the highlight can be changed at any time, with content added or removed, include the retrieval date with the URL:

APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (n.d.). FAQs [Snapchat story]. Retrieved December 10, 2018, from https://www.instagram.com/s/aGlnaGxpZ2h0OjE3OTc2ODkwNTk5MTc5MTY1/
  • in-text citations: (APA Style, n.d.)

Blog Posts

Author's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. or Username if real name not provided. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Title of Blog. URL

Example

Dobbs, D. (2012, June 13). Fun in cities: Feature, not bug. Wired Science. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/ 2012/06/fun-in-cities-feature-not-bug/

Note: If the blog author's real name is not provided, use their username instead.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Dobbs, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, Section Heading section if given)

Example: (Dobbs, 2012, para. 2)

Note: This blog post has no section headings, so only a paragraph number is given in the citation.

Podcast

Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given (episode number if known) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of Podcast. Publisher. URL if known

Example

Rogers, S. (Host). (2012, June 18). Richard Wagamese: Children's book panel (No. 225) [Audio podcast episode]. In The Next Chapter. CBC. http://www.cbc.ca/thenextchapter/episode/2012/06/18/richard-wagamese-bookworm-childrens-book-panel/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Rogers, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Rogers, 2012)

Note: Because podcasts do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

TV (episodes & series)

Television Broadcast:
Producer, P.P. (Producer). (Date of broadcast). Title [Television broadcast]. City, State: Studio or distributor.

Birt, J., (1977, May 4). David Frost Interviews Richard Nixon [Television broadcast]. Dana Point, California:

     David Paradine Productions.

Television Series:
Writer, W.W. (Writer), & Director, D.D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City, State: Studio or distributor.

Sherwood, S. (Writer) & Cooper H. (Director). (1970). Lost Locket, Found Locket [Television series episode ]. In S, 

    Sherwood (Producer), Brady Bunch. USA: ABC.

PowerPoint or other presentation

Citation Format

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Publisher. URL or DOI

Example

Tenten, B. A. (2018). Outlining your APA research paper: An overview [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU. http://www.xxx.edu/ppt/xxxx

Music

Artist last name, A.A. (Year). Song title. On Album title. City, State of production: Recording manufacturer.

Loggins, K. and Messina, J. (1971). House at Pooh Corner. On Sittin' In. USA: Columbia Records.

Apps

Name of Company that created the application or Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given (Year current version of the application was released). Name of application (Version version number if given) [Mobile application software]. Publisher Name or App Store. URL application was downloaded from.

Note: Only cite software and apps when they are not widely known or available. Citations are not needed for common apps such as Microsoft Word or Twitter.

Example

National Geographic Society (2012). National parks by National Geographic (Version 1.2) [Mobile app]. App Store. http://www.apple.com/itunes/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (National Geographic Society, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (National Geographic Society, 2012)

Note: Because apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

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