WRT 204 (Menut): Visual Analysis

Visual Analysis

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Amy Pajewski
FHG 211

Gathering information to build a citation with examples

Citing images in MLA

Attributing the creator is necessary anytime you use an image.  Whether you had to obtain permission or it was freely available to use, it is necessary to give credit to the creator or copyright holder.  Make sure to read the usage rights statements on websites to understand if there is specific wording that needs to be used. 

There are potentially three places you will need to cite.

  • In-Text Citation
  • Image Caption
  • Works Cited or References  

Consult the style guide examples in this guide for examples. 

Citing Images MLA

  • All visual illustrations/images (except for maps, diagrams, charts, tables, etc.) should be labeled Fig or Figure, then an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the figure.  (ex. Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.)
  • When referring the figure (in-text) do not capitalize fig or figure.
  • Figure captions provide titles or explanatory notes.
  • If the caption includes the complete bibliographic information about the source (and the source is not cited in text) no entry for the source in the works cited is necessary.
  • MLA no longer requires the URL in the citation. If an instructor requires the use of URL’s, MLA suggests placing angle brackets (<>) around the URL.
  • You will need to include as much information as possible

Web Only Image

  • Name of creator/creator/username of the image.
  • Title of image (in quotation marks) If no title exists create a brief descriptive title. 
  • Medium of work. (ex. illustration, map, cartoon, photograph, etc)
  • Date of resource creation (if available)
  • Title of webpage or article.
  • Name of site (in italics)
  • Larger Institution or organization (if applicable) 

In text

The aurora borealis (see fig.1) is a natural multicolor light display produced by solar wind particles seem in high latitude regions. 

Image Caption

Fig. 1. “Aurora Over Calgary and Spokane.” NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center.    



Works Cited Example 

Last-name, First-name or Username. “Title of Image.”  Medium of work. Date of resource creation. Name of site. URL

Works Cited

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. “Aurora Over Calgary and Spokane.” Photograph. 19 Feb. 2012. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasamarshall/14743833915/in/photolist-osS1a2

The Writing Lab at Purdue University does a superb job of helping to guide students in the use of the writing style guides. 

APA common sources

APA reference citations have four elements: authorpublication datetitle, and source. These examples are color-coded for your reference.

Journal Article

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the Periodical, volume(issue), #-#,

          https://doi.org/xxxx (if available)

Rawlings, D., & Tieman, J. (2015). Patient and care information: Can they read and understand it? An

          example from palliative care. Australian Nursing & Midwifery Journal58(2), 43-52.



Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Copyright Year). Title of the book. Publisher. DOI or URL (if available)

Armenta, A. (2017). Protect, serve, and deport: The rise of policing as immigration enforcement. University

          of California Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1w8h204 


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of work. Website Name. URL

Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost.



Name of Group. (Date). Title of work. Site Name (if different from author). URL

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety.


APA instagram/photos

APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (2018, December 5). Welcome to the official Instagram for #APAStyle! We’re here to help you with your APA Style questions [Instagram photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/Bq-A-dvBLiH/


Fox, M. J. [@realmikejfox]. (2018, June 5). It takes < than a min to learn how to save a life. Watch the video at handsonly.nyc #ICanSaveALife with #HandsOnlyCPR [Instagram photo]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/BjppDLDBxRF/


Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2018, May 12). Happy Mother’s Day!! “It is important for the son to have a close relationship with his mother while he is [Instagram video]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/BirIQFnnmzd/


in-text citations: (APA Style, 2018; Fox, 2018; Public Interest Directorate, 2018)

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